【英语学习方法】 2018-01-11本文已影响


When you hear a funny joke (which we hope happens often), something odd happens. The corners of your eyes crinkle1). Your nostrils flare2), and your lips pull back to show your teeth. Your breath comes out in short bursts, five times a second, while your voice makes "ha ha ha" sounds. You're laughing!IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

There are many kinds of laughs—belly laughs3) and chuckles4) and guffaws5) and giggles6) and nervous laughs and unkind laughs. Your laugh is distinctive, like your voice. But even though no two laughs sound exactly the same, we all know laughter when we hear it. Laughs in Kazakhstan are pretty much the same as laughs in Kentucky.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

We usually don't decide to laugh. When you hear a good joke, you don't think, "Now I'll raise my lip and say 'hee-hee'." It happens automatically.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Babies laugh long before they can talk. And laughter is hard to fake. In experiments, people can tell a real laugh from a fake laugh two times out of three.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

All this tells us that laughter is hardwired7) into our brains. But why do we do it? And are we the only ones?IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台






The Laughing ZooIfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

If you tickle8) a rat, it will make a squealing9) sound so high-pitched10) that humans can't hear it (though other rats can). Scientists are pretty sure that this is rat laughter. Rats like to spend time with other rats that laugh a lot, and with people who tickle them. Many social animals, from mice to chimpanzees and even penguins, make laugh-like squeals or pants11) when they're play-fighting or being tickled, and sometimes when they want to avoid a fight. Animals can't tell jokes, so what are they laughing at? In animals, laughter is a way to tell others "It's OK! This might look like fighting, but we're just playing!" That's an important message for social animals to share. In play fights they practice biting and chasing, which might seem threatening. But if everyone is laughing, it stays friendly.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

For both people and animals, laughter feels good. When you laugh, your body relaxes and your brain releases chemicals that make you happy. This is your brain's way of saying, "That was great! Do that again!" Your brain likes you to explore and take risks. But it also wants you to be OK. So when it senses a little fear followed by immediate relief, it says, Great! And that triggers a laugh. IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Humans are more complex than mice or chimpanzees, and so is our laughter. We still laugh at tickling and chasing, but we also laugh at jokes and puns12) and even clowns in funny shoes.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Just as we enjoy running and jumping to flex13) our muscles, hearing a joke is a fun way to flex our mental muscles. Jokes help us think creatively and see things in new ways. They also help us think better by making mistakes fun. That's important! If you want to do great things, you have to be prepared to make a lot of mistakes and not let them get to14) you. Jokes give us lots of practice at being flexible, thinking in new ways and correcting ourselves quickly. And the brain rewards this mental play with laughter. It feels so good that we like to do it again and again. Tell me another joke!IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Of course, jokes aren't the only things we laugh at. Some people laugh when they're nervous. It's a way of releasing tension, so we don't explode15).IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Laughter can sometimes have a dark side, such as when we laugh at other people's mistakes or accidents. This laughter is not always kind. Why do we do it? Maybe because we're always a little bit worried about doing something wrong ourselves. When someone else goofs16), it can be a relief—at least it wasn't me!IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Practical jokes17) set up this kind of laugh. They put other people into situations where we can laugh at them, which can be tricky—if the person has a good sense of humor, he or she may be able to laugh at the joke along with you. But often practical jokes make people mad.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Surprisingly, most of the time when we laugh, it's not because someone made a joke or did anything silly. In fact, when researchers at the University of Maryland followed people around a mall and counted all their laughs, they discovered that most laughs happen in ordinary conversations. People laugh after saying things like, "I'll see you guys later" or "There you go!" But why?IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

These everyday laughs fill pauses and help people read each other. Even friendly chatting is full of small moments that could sound rude if you take them the wrong way—laughs keep everything friendly. People also laugh after saying something that might sound a bit odd or new or contrary. The laugh says, "I'm just playing with this idea, it's OK" or "I'm not mad". They help the conversation move along. Sometimes, laughter simply shares a happy mood. When you laugh it makes your friends laugh too. And laughing feels good. So go ahead and spread it around! IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Laughing uses lots of muscles and fills your lungs with oxygen—it's actually quite good exercise. It relaxes your body and relieves stress. Being in a cheerful mood boosts your immune system, so you can fight off sickness more easily. Patients in hospitals even report that funny books and movies help them feel less pain—though when scientists tested this idea, they found that scary movies work just as well.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

Laughter can even help you be brave. It is a potent18) weapon against fear and things that scare us. If you can laugh at the monsters under the bed instead of being paralyzed19) by fear, you'll have a big advantage. All together now: riddiculus20)!IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

And laughter can help you learn. You may have noticed that it's much easier to remember a funny story about George Washington than a list of battles he won. Humor gets you to pay attention and think, and rewards you with a good feeling. All that adds up to a stronger memory.IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台

So laughter can make you happy healthy and smart—what are you waiting for? Oh, a joke?IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台















如此说来,笑能让你快乐、健康又聪明。你还在等什么呢?哦,是在等着听笑话吗? IfK秒教学习网-学习教育资源分享平台





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